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Home > Catholic Encyclopedia > S > Schools

Schools

In the Church

The Christian Church

By virtue of her Divine charter, "Going, teach ye all nations", the Church is essentially a teaching organization. Teaching is included in her task of saving souls. Primarily she was instituted to dispense the means of salvation, and to teach the truths which are necessary to salvation. These truths are spiritual and moral, and her catechumenal schools were instituted for the purpose of teaching them. Truths which are not of their nature spiritual, truths of science, of history, matters of culture — in a word, profane learning — these do not belong intrinsically to the programme of the Church's teaching. Nevertheless, they enter into her work by force of circumstance, when, namely, the Christian youth cannot attain a knowledge of them without incurring grave danger to faith or morals. They enter also into the Church's task by reason of a pedagogical principle which she has always recognized in practice. Religion being the supreme co-ordinating principle in education, as it is in life, if the so-called secular branches of knowledge are taught without reference to religion, the Church feels that an educational mistake is being made, that the "one thing necessary" is being excluded, to the detriment of education itself. Therefore she assumes the task of teaching the secular branches in such a way that religion is the centralizing, unifying, and vitalizing force in the educational process. Whenever there is positive and immediate danger of loss of faith, the Church cannot allow her children to run the risk of perversion; whenever religion is left out of the curriculum, she tries to supply the defect. In both cases she establishes under her own control schools which are called Catholic and which, in the vicissitudes of historical development or from the particular circumstances of their foundation, scope, or maintenance, are specifically known as catechetical schools, monastic schools, cathedral schools, chantry schools, guild schools, parochial schools, etc.

Catechetical schools

These flourished about the middle of the second century of the Christian era. They were brought into existence by the conflict of Christianity with pagan philosophy. They were, consequently, academies of higher learning. Out of them grew the first great schools of theological controversy and also the schools for the special training of the clergy, although there were, almost from the beginning, schools attached to the household of the bishops (episcopal schools) where clerics were trained, We have reason to believe that in some instances, as in the catechetical school of Protogenes at Edessa (about 180), not only the higher branches but also the elementary branches were taught in the catechetical schools. Schools of this type became more numerous as time went on. In the Council of Vaison (529) the priests of Gaul are commanded to take boys into their household and teach them to read "the Psalms, and the Holy Scripture and to instruct them in the Law of God". From these sprang the parochial schools of medieval and modern times.

As the conflict between Christianity and pagan philosophy gave rise to the catechetical schools, so the more general struggle between Christian and pagan standards of life gave rise to other provisions on the part of the Church for safeguarding the faith of Christian children. In the first centuries great stress was laid on the importance of home education, and this task was committed in a special manner to Christian mothers. It is sufficient to mention the Christian matrons Macrina, Emmelia, Nonna, Anthusa, Monica, and Paula, mothers of saints and scholars, to show how successfully the home under the direction of the Christian mother was made to counteract the influence of pagan schools. There were also private schools for Christian youth, taught by Christians, for instance the school at Imola, taught by Cassian.

Monastic schools

Monasticism as an institution was a protest against the corrupt pagan standards of living which had begun to influence not only the public life of Christians but also their private and domestic life. Even in the fourth century, St. John Chrysostom testifies to the decline of fervour in the Christian family, and contends that it is no longer possible for children to obtain proper religious and moral training in their own homes. It was part of the purpose of monasticism to meet this need and to supply not only to the members of the religious orders but also to children committed to the care of the cloister the moral religious, and intellectual culture which could not be obtained elsewhere without lowering the Christian standard of life. At the same time episcopal schools, though instituted primarily for the education of clerical candidates, did not decline to admit secular scholars, especially after the State schools of the empire had fallen into decay. There were parochial schools also, which, while they aimed at fostering vocations to the priesthood, were expressly commanded not to deny their pupils the right to enter the married state as soon as they reached the age of maturity (cum ad œtatem perfectam pervenerint). The explicit enactment of the Council of Vaison (529) in this matter is important because it refers to a similar custom already prevailing in Italy. It remains true, however, that although the episcopal and presbyteral (parochial) schools thus contributed to the education of the laity, the chief portion of the burden of lay education in the early Middle Ages was borne by the monasteries. The earliest monastic legislation does not clearly define the organization of the "internal" and "external" schools. Nevertheless, it recognizes the existence in the monastery of children who were to be educated, not for the cloister, but for the world. In Ireland, as Archbishop Healy says, the monks, "taught the children of the rich and poor alike" ("Ireland's Ancient Schools and Scholars", 102), and to Ireland went not only clerics but laymen from England and the Continent, to receive an education. On the Continent also the education of the laity, "gentle and simple", fell to the lot of the monks. It is difficult to say when the distinction between the "internal" school (schola claustri) and the "external" (schola canonica, s. externa) was first introduced. We find it in St. Gall, Fulda and Reichenau in the ninth and tenth centuries. In the internal school the pupils were novices, future members of the order, some of whom were offered up (oblati) by their parents at a tender age. In the external school were the children of the neighbouring villagers and the sons of the nobility; many of the references to this class of pupils in the monastic code lay stress on the obligation to treat all with equal justice, not taking account of their rank in life. There was a similar custom in regard to the reception of young girls in the convents, as appears from several enactments of Bishop St. Cæsarius of Arles and his successors. At Arles, moreover, according to Muteau (see bibliography) open schools (écoles ouvertes) were held by the nuns for the benefit of the entire neighbourhood. The curriculum of studies in the monastic schools comprised the trivium and quadrivium, that is to say, grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and the theory of music. Besides, the monks cultivated the science and art of healing; they devoted attention to agriculture, building, and the decorative arts. They took pains to transcribe the Classics as well as the distinctly ecclesiastical works that had come down to them; and in doing this they developed the art of penmanship and that of illumination to a high degree of perfection. They were annalists also, noting down year by year the important events not only in the life of their own community but also in the Church at large and in the political world. Finally, by example and precept they dignified manual labour, which in pagan Rome was despised as fit only for slaves.

The head of the monastic school was called magister scholœ, capiscola, proscholus, etc. By the end of the ninth century, however, the usual name for the head of the school was scholasticus. His assistants were called seniores. The method of teaching was influenced largely by the scarcity of books and the need of handing down without diminution the heritage of the past. The master dictated (legere was the word used to signify the act of teaching), and the pupils wrote not only the text but also the master's explanation or commentary. Of the many textbooks in use the most popular was the work by Marcianus Capella (about 420) entitled "Satyricon, seu de Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiæ". That the instruction given to the laity in the monastic schools was entirely gratuitous is evident from the decree of Bishop Theodulf of Orléans in the eighth century, and from other documents. When, at Tours, the external school was frequented by a number of wealthy pupils, whose voluntary gifts to the monastery put the poorer students in a position of apparent inferiority, the bishop of that see, Amalric, gave a generous donation to the monks to be used in the maintenance of poor students. The Carlovingian revival of education affected not only the internal schools of the monasteries but also the external schools, and, during the reign of Charles's successors bishops and popes by a number of decrees showed their interest in the maintenance not only of schools of sacred science, but also in schools "for the study of letters". The external school had by this time become a recognized institution, which the sons of the farmers in the neighbourhood of the monasteries frequented not by privilege but by a right freely acknowledged. We know that before the end of the ninth century both boys and girls attended the schools attached to the parish churches in the Diocese of Soissons. As time went on the establishment and maintenance of schools by the Church was made a matter of express canonical enactment. No document could be more explicit than the Decree of the Third Council of Lateran (1179): "That every cathedral church have a teacher (magistrum) who is to teach poor scholars and others, and that no one receive a fee for permission to teach" (Mansi, XXII, 234).

Cathedral schools

The cathedral schools sprang from the episcopal schools which, as has been said, existed from a very early time for the training of clerics. Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz, 742-66, is said to be the founder of medieval cathedral schools, but only in the sense that he organized the clergy of his cathedral church into a community, and ordained that they undertake the conduct and management of the school attached to their church. The bishop himself was to have control of the school and under him was to be the immediate superior of the school (magister scholœ). In the cities and towns where there was no cathedral, the canons of the local church were organized after the manner of the cathedral clergy, and conducted a "canonicate" school. In both institutions there came to be distinguished;

The method employed in the cathedral schools was identical with that of the monastic schools.

Chantry schools

The chantry schools were similar in character to the cathedral and canonicate schools. Indeed, they may be said to be a specific kind of canonicate schools. The chantry was a foundation with endowment, the proceeds of which went to one or more priests carrying the obligation of singing or saying Mass at stated times, or daily, for the soul of the endower, or for the souls of persons named by him. It was part of the duty of the incumbents of a chantry foundation to "teach gratis the poor who asked it humbly for the love of God". (See "Catholic University Bulletin," IX, 3 sq.).

Guild schools, hospital schools, and city schools

The last beginning with the thirteenth century, shared the work of education with the cloister, cathedral, and chantry schools. The guilds and hospitals were ecclesiastical foundations, were guided by clerics, and engaged in the work of education under the direction of the Church. The city schools at first met with opposition from the teachers in the monastic and cathedral foundations, although they also were under the control of ecclesiastics. Kehrein in his "History of Education" (see bibliography) mentions a Decree of Alexander III which prohibits any abbot from preventing any magister or scholasticus from taking charge of a school in the city or suburb "since knowledge is a gift of God and talent is free". Towards the end of the Middle Ages the task of the ecclesiastical teacher became so important that communities of clerics were founded for the express purpose of devoting their lives to the duties of elementary education. The best known of these communities is that of "The Brothers of the Common Life" founded by Gerard Groot (1340-84) at Deventer. It soon extended to Windedheim, Agnetenberg, and other towns in Holland and North Germany. To this community belonged Thomas à Kempis, the author of "The Imitation of Christ". That these various provisions for the education not only of the clergy but also of the laity--monastic schools, cathedral schools, canonicate schools, chantry schools, guild schools, hospital schools, city schools, and special educational institutions--met the educational needs of the times, and were adequate as far as the circumstances of the times would allow, is the verdict of all historians who view without prejudice the educational career of the Catholic Church. Allain (see bibliography) has told the story of primary education in France; Ravelet (see bibliography) has gone over the whole question of primary education in medieval times; Leach has told part of the story (see bibliography) as far as pre-Reformation England is concerned. It is impossible to give more than a summary statement of the facts which these writers have accumulated. Those facts, however, justify the assertion that, far from opposing or neglecting the education of the masses, the Catholic Church in medieval times provided generously for their instruction in the elementary branches, as well as in the department of higher studies, whenever and wherever the political, social, and economic conditions were not so adverse as to thwart her educational efforts.

Both the particular and the general councils of the Church, imperial capitularies, and episcopal and papal decrees show that bishops and popes, while concerned primarily for the education of future members of the clerical body in the sacred sciences, were also at pains to encourage and promote the education of the laity. For instance, the Council of Cloveshoe, held by Cuthbert, Archbishop of Canterbury in 749, prescribes that abbesses as well as abbots provide for the education of all their households (familiœ). A Carlovingian capitulary of 802 enjoins "that everyone should send his son to study letters, and that the child should remain at school with all diligence until he became well instructed in learning". Theodulf of Orléans in 797 decrees that gratuitous instruction be given by the priests in every town and village of his diocese, and there cannot be the least doubt that education of the laity is meant. The Council of Châlon-sur-Saône in 813 legislates in a similar spirit that not only "schools of Sacred Scripture" but also "schools of letters" be established. The Council of Rome, held in 853, directs the bishops of the Universal Church to establish "in every episcopal residence [in universis episcopiis] among the populations subject to them, and in all places where there is such need" masters and teachers to teach "literary studies and the seven liberal arts". These and similar documents lay stress on the obligatian which rests on the parents and godparents to see to the education of children committed to their care. By the middle of the ninth century the distinction between external and internal monastic schools being clearly recognized, and parish schools having become a regular diocesan institution, the testimonies in favour of popular education under the auspices of the Church become clearer. In the tenth century, in spite of the disturbed conditions in the political world, learning flourished in the great monasteries, such as that of St. Gall (Switzerland). St. Maximin (Trier), and in the cathedral schools, such as those of Reims and Lyons. The greatest teachers of that time, Bruno of Cologne and Gerbert of Aurillac (Pope Sylvester II), taught not only the sacred but also the profane sciences. In the eleventh century the school of Chartres, that of Ste-Geneviève at Paris, and the numerous schools of rhetoric and dialectic show that even in the higher branches of learning, in spite of the fact that the teachers were invariably clerics, the laymen were welcomed and were not denied education of the secondary kind. That, as historians have pointed out, the references to popular and elementary education in the local councils of the Church have not always been preserved, is explained by the fact that elementary Church schools were now an established fact. Ecclesiastical authority intervened only whenever some abuse called for remedial legislation. Thus, the decree of the Third Council of Lateran already referred to (n. III) aimed at abolishing the custom of exacting fees for instruction in the cathedral schools. There were, naturally, details of arrangement to be determined, such as salary of teachers and supervision or personal instruction on the part of the pastor. These were provided in decrees, such as that of the Diocesan Synod of St. Omer in 1183 and that of Engelbert II, Archbishop of Cologne, in 1270.

The history of education in England before the Reformation is the story of the efforts made in monastic, cathedral, chantry, and parish schools for the education of the laity as well as of the clergy. In the narrative of the suppression and confiscation of these foundations Leach (see bibliography) gives abundant documentary evidence to justify his assertion that "Grammar schools, instead of being comparatively modern, post-Reformation inventions, are among our most ancient institutions, some of them far older than the Lord Mayor of London or the House of Commons" (p. 5). He estimates the number of grammar schools before the reign of Edward VI to have been "close on two hundred", and these he considers to be merely "the survivors of a much larger host which have been lost in the storms of the past, and drowned in the seas of destruction" (ibid.). There were, he maintains, not only schools connected with the cathedral churches, monasteries, collegiate churches, hospitals, guilds, and chantries, but also independent schools, in one of which "an old man was paid thirteen shillings and fourpence by the Mayor, to teach young children their A B C" (p. 7). Lincoln, Chichester, and Wells were the principal cathedral schools. Beverley, Chester, Crediton, Ripon, Wimborne, Warwick, Stafford, and Tamworth had important collegiate schools. At Evesham, Cirencester, and Lewes were the principal monastery schools at the eve of the Reformation, while at Oxford, Cambridge, Eton, and elsewhere were thirty-one college schools of grammar before the reign of Edward VI, The number of schools in proportion to the population of the country was relatively very great, and as far as it is possible for us now to judge the attendance, that, too, must have been relatively large. The history of education in Scotland before the reformation is told in the first part of Grant's "History of the Burgh Schools of Scotland". "Our earliest records", says that writer, "prove not only that schools existed, but that they were then invariably found in connection with the Church" (p. 2). He quotes documents for the foundation of schools in 1100, 1120, 1180, 1195, and cites in many instances papal approval and confirmation of educational establishments in the twelfth century. He is convinced that these institutions were intended not merely for clerics but also for young laymen (ibid., p. 12), and he concludes his summary by admitting that "The scattered jottings collected in this chapter show our obligation to the ancient Church for having so diligently promoted our national education--an education placed within the reach of all classes" (ibid., p. 72).

The educational institutions founded and supported by the Church in France, Germany, Italy, and other parts of Europe before the Reformation have, in part, been mentioned in the general account of monastic and cathedral schools. Specht (see bibliography) has produced documentary evidence to show the extent to which laywomen were educated in the convent schools of the ninth and the following centuries; he has also shown that daughters of noble families were, as a rule, educated by private teachers who, for the most part, were clergymen. The assertion so frequently made that, during the Middle Ages, learning was considered out of place in a layman, that even elementary knowledge of letters was a prerogative of the clergy, is not sustained by a careful examination of historical records. It is true that there are passages in the popular literature of the Middle Ages in which the ignorant layman, who is well versed in the art of warfare and in the usages of polite society, affects to despise learning and to regard it as a monkish or ecclesiastical accomplishment. But, as Léon Maitre (see bibliography) asserts, "such ignorance was by no means systematic; it arose from the conditions of the times". "Knowledge", says a twelfth-century writer, "is not an exclusive privilege of the clergy, for many laymen are instructed in literature. A prince, whenever he can succeed in escaping from the tumult of public affairs and from [the confusion of] constant warfare, ought to devote himself to the study of books" (P.L., CCIII, col. 149). The number of distinguished laymen and laywomen, emperors, kings, nobles, queens and princesses who, during the medieval era, attained prominence as scholars shows that the advice was not disregarded. The calumny recently reaffirmed that "the Church was not the mother, but rather the stepmother, of learning" is easily asserted, but is not so easily proved.

The destruction of this vast and varied system of ecclesiastical legislation is a fact of general history. The schools, as a rule, disappeared with the institutions to which they were attached. The confiscation of the monasteries, the suppression of the benefices on which the chantries were founded, the removal of the guilds from the control of ecclesiastical authority, the suppression of cathedral and canonical chapters and the sequestration of their possessions by the State, were the immediate cause of the cessation of this kind of educational activity on the part of the Church at the time of the Reformation and afterwards. In Protestant countries these events took place in the course of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In Germany, a compromise was reached in some States by the recognition of both Protestant and Catholic "confessional" schools and the division of school funds, an arrangement which lasted until the beginning of the nineteenth century; in France the work of confiscation began with the French Revolution; in Italy, Spain, and Portugal the suppression and spoliation have taken place within the last half-century and are still going on. Apart from the question of elementary justice--the question of violation of a strict right to their own lands and funds, which the ecclesiastical corporations possessed at the time their property was seized and their schools suppressed--there arises now the question of the right to teach, the right of the Church to found and maintain private schools, and the alleged exclusive right of the State to educate.

The fundamental principles of canon law

Those principles bearing on these questions may be stated as follows:

From the interaction and conflict of these fundamental rights arise the following more particular principles:

The present status of the Church and state in regard to education

In Germany

After the Reformation in Germany the primary schools in Protestant provinces passed over to the control of the local civil authorities. In Catholic communities the ecclesiastical authorities did not yield so readily to the aggression of the State. All through the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries councils (Cologne, 1536 and 1560; Salzburg, 1569; Breslau, 1592; Augsburg, 1610) withstood the encroachments of civil authority on the parochial schools and, as a rule, a modus vivendi was reached satisfactory to the bishops. By the end of the eighteenth century however, the notion of State jurisdiction in educational matters was firmly established. For the most part the foundation of private schools was the solution. These were recognized by German law as belonging to the jurisdiction of the Church. Early in the nineteenth century the so-called "simultaneous schools" began to be the ordinary solution of the problem. In these there were children of various denominations, each denomination having, in theory, the right to care for the religious instruction of its members. On several occasions the bishops of Germany or of some German state protested (e.g. at Würzburg, 1848; the Bavarian bishops, 1850) against the restrictions of the rights of the Church. At the present time the simultaneous schools are obligatory in a few provinces and optional (facultativ) in others, while in Bavaria, the Rhine Provinces and elsewhere, "confessional", i.e. denominational, schools are the rule, and simultaneous, or mixed, schools, the exception. Throughout the empire the supreme control of all elementary schools is vested in the government, the local ecclesiastical authorities being granted a greater or less amount of supervision and control according to the different circumstances in different localities. The teacher of religion for Catholics is of course always a Catholic, almost always a priest, and is a regularly qualified and salaried teacher, like the instructor in other branches. The attitude of the bishops towards the contemporary educational system in Germany is set forth in the decrees of the Council of Cologne (1860).

In Austria

Until the beginning of the nineteenth century the conditions were similar to those existing in Germany. The legislation of Joseph II had been distinctly hostile to religious influence in the schools. However, the enactments of 1808, 1868, 1885, etc. give a measure of authority and control to the local clergy which make the conditions in Austria to be as a rule more favourable than in the German Empire. The question of language has of course complicated matters in many provinces of Austria, and local conditions, the personality of the government official, etc. have much to do with the actual status of religious teaching in the public schools. The decrees of the Council of Vienna (1858) contain the views of the hierarchy of Austria in regard to the present condition of religious education in that country. The Letter of the Archbishop of Vienna to the Papal Nuncio (22 Oct., 1868) is also an important declaration. See also articles 5-8 of the Concordat of 1855 (AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY).

In France

The Napoleonic decree of 1808 established in principle and in fact the most rigorous State monopoly in education. It met at once with a vigorous protest on the part of the Catholic bishops, who demanded freedom of instruction in the name of the parents in whom, they contended, the right to educate is primarily vested. In 1833 and 1850 (La loi Falloux) "free schools" were recognized. No special concession was made to the Church but permission was granted to individuals to open schools. From 1833 to 1850 members of religious orders or priests could teach only in the State schools. After 1850 they were free, as citizens, to open schools of their own, both primary and secondary. In 1886 a blow was struck at free primary education by authorization given to mayors and school inspectors to oppose the opening of any private school on hygienic or moral grounds. In 1888 came another attack in the form of an order of the Council of State, depriving communes and departments of the right to grant appropriations for private schools. Finally in 1904 it was declared that "teaching of every grade and every kind" is forbidden in France to the members of the congregations. This resulted in the closing of 14,404 out of 16,904 "Congregational" schools. Since that time the bishops have tried to reorganize Catholic education by establishing private schools in which the teachers are either laymen and laywomen or secularized members of the congregations. Instruction in religion in the State schools was optional with the parents of the children by a decree of 1881. In 1882 religious instruction in the primary schools of the State was absolutely forbidden, and in 1886 religious and clerics were forbidden to teach in those schools. In place of denominational religion there was introduced first a species of "denominational neutrality" and later, a "scientific religion" (enseignement critique). Within the present decade the tendency of this teaching has been plainly seen in the introduction of textbooks which are both anti-clerical and anti-religious, with the result that bishops are at present under indictment in France for daring to warn the people of their dioceses against the use of such books in the schools supported by the people.

In Belgium

See BELGIUM; also pamphlet by Cardinal Dechamps, "Le Nouveau projet de loi sur l'enseignement primaire" (Mechlin, 1879).

In England

Until the beginning of the nineteenth century there was no government system of primary schools in England, nor were any primary schools in receipt of State aid. It was not until 1833 that government grants were made, and then the schools that benefited by the grants were either schools of the National and British Foreign Society, or, in any case, schools in which the Bible was to be read as part of the regular instruction. The civil disabilities under which Catholics suffered, and the restriction of grants in practice to Bible-reading schools excluded Catholic private schools from State aid until 1848. In 1856 and 1858 the conditions under which grants were given were made more favourable to Catholics. From 1871 to 1903 the basic law of primary education in England was Forster's Elementary Education Act of 1870. This Act, while it did not abolish the voluntary or denominational schools, established the Board-schools. These were to be supported from the rates or taxes, and governed by school boards elected by the people. The Government helped to build the school and, in places where the boards were judged culpably negligent, compelled them to build. In 1876 and 1880 supplementary enactments were passed, called School Attendance Acts, which compel the attendance at either voluntary or Board-schools of all children under ten. The religious difficulty was met at first by leaving the matter of religious instruction to the discretion of the local board. Later the "Conscience" clause and the "Cowper-Temple" clause were added, in order to satisfy the Anglicans and the Nonconformists. These clauses set aside a special hour for religious instruction, attendance at which was to be entirely voluntary, and forbade the use of "any catechism or religious formulary distinctive of any particular denomination". Catholics were able to accept these conditions in some localities. Meantime various enactments, for example in 1891 and 1897, were passed, which lessened the burden of the voluntary schools. The Bill of 1902, which became law in 1903, took the power out of the hands of the school boards, vested it in the town and county councils, and compelled these to take over and maintain the voluntary schools. This brought England in line with Scotland, where a similar law was in force since 1872. The Nonconformists, however, objected because in localities where they were in the minority the religious instruction given in the schools would be denominational, that is Anglican. To meet this objection Mr. Birrell's Bill of 1906 was framed. But, after various vicissitudes, the Bill was finally defeated, and never became law. It would have had the effect of wiping the voluntary schools out of existence and abolishing all denominational instruction, a result which, apparently, would be acceptable to the Nonconformists, but is bitterly opposed by both Catholics and Anglicans. In 1870 the number of Catholic schools in England and Wales was 354, providing for the education of 101,933 children; while in 1906 the number of schools had increased to 1062 and the attendance had reached 284,746. This increase is largely due to the zeal of the Catholic School Committee, now known as the Catholic Education Council.

In Ireland

The primary education of Catholics in Ireland is provided for by;

The majority of the National Schools are taught by lay teachers. Many of the girls' schools are, however, taught by nuns, and boys' schools by Christian Brothers (of the Congregation of St. John Baptist de La Salle), Presentation, Marist, Patrician, and Franciscan Brothers, The Act of 1831 aimed at separate instruction in religion. In places where it is at all practicable there is a National School for Catholics and one for Protestants in the same locality. Where the attendance is "mixed" there is a separate hour for religious instruction, attendance at which is voluntary. In Catholic sections, or when the majority of children are Catholic, the manager is almost invariably the parish priest. The manager is the local school authority: he appoints the teachers (subject to the approval of the commissioners), removes them, and conducts all the necessary correspondence with the commissioners. His powers and his duties are those of a school board. He is, if a priest, responsible to his bishop. By enactment of the Maynooth Synod of 1900 he may not dismiss a teacher without submitting the case to the bishop of the diocese in which the school is situated. Of the seven training colleges for primary teachers, five are under the management of the Catholic bishops. The number of teachers trained in these colleges is now more than double the number of untrained teachers. Religious instruction in the primary schools is given at a stated hour by the regular teachers of the school: this is supplemented by the local clergy, who have access, within reasonable limits, to the classroom for the purpose of religious instruction. That these conditions are, on the whole, acceptable to the bishops is clear from the pastoral address issued in 1900 from the National Synod of Maynooth. It should be added, however, that it is due to the vigilance and devotedness of the Irish clergy that they have gradually evolved from the original National system which was "thoroughly dangerous", a system which at the present time is "a help rather than a hindrance to the Church".

In the United States

"The greatest religious fact in the United States today", writes Archbishop Spalding, "is the Catholic School system, maintained without any aid by the people who love it". The vastness of the system may be gauged by the fact that it comprises over 20,000 teachers, over 1,000,000 pupils, represents $100,000,000 worth of property; and costs over $15,000,000 annually. This system grew up from humble beginnings. Its growth has kept pace with the growth of the Church. The oldest schools in the present territory of the United States are the Catholic schools founded about 1600 in the Spanish colonies. The French colonies, too, had their schools as a regular part of the civil and religious scheme of colonization and civilization. Catholic educational work in the Thirteen Colonies dates from the arrival of the Catholic colony in Maryland. The first regularly established school in Maryland dates from 1640. As the condition changed from that of a missionary country to that of a country regularly provided with a fixed ecclesiastical organization, the schools came to be recognized as a function of organized parish work. In the Spanish and French colonies the school, like the Church, looked to the State for support. In the English colonies there was also State support of denominational education, but whether the Catholics could or could not secure a share of the public funds depended on local conditions. When the States adopted their constitutions, they did not introduce any change in this respect. It was "the gradual rise of dissentient religious bodies in the colonies and States due to the influx of emigrants and other causes, that brought about important changes which led to the establishment of a 'non-sectarian' system of schools" (Burns, "The Catholic School System in the United States", p. 359). We know that in many instances Catholics in the West and even in Massachusetts and New York obtained funds from the State for the support of their schools, as the Episcopalians and Presbyterians did for theirs.

The unsuccessful attempt of Father Richard of Detroit in 1808 to obtain for the Catholic schools of that city a share of the public funds, was followed in 1830 by a more successful plan at Lowell, Mass. At that time the population of Lowell included many Irish Catholic immigrants. In 1830 at the annual town meeting a committee was appointed to consider the expediency of "establishing a separate school for the benefit of the Irish population", and the following year the sum of fifty dollars annually was appropriate for that purpose. In 1855 there were two Catholic schools at Lowell; both were recognized as part of the school system of the town, and both were supported out of the public funds. After sixteen years of successful trial the arrangement was discontinued in 1852, owing to the wave of bigotry known as the Knownothing Movement that swept over New England. In New York, as early as 1806, St. Peter's School applied for and received State aid. A similar arrangement was made for St. Patrick's School in 1816. In 1824 this support was withdrawn by the State, owing to the activity of the Public School Society. To this society was committed the entire school fund for distribution, and, as we learn from the protests of New York Catholics, the activity of the society was directed towards making the public schools not strictly non-sectarian but offensively Protestant. In 1840 the School Controversy in New York was precipitated by the petition of the Catholics to be allowed a share of the public funds for their schools. The petition was rejected by the Common Council; but the fight was not, on that account, discontinued. With remarkable zeal, eloquence, and erudition, Bishop Hughes, supported not only by all his Catholic people, but also by some of the non-Catholic congregations of the city, urged the claims of religious education. He laid stress on the contention that Catholics have a right to "a fair and just proportion of the funds appropriated for the common schools, provided the Catholics will do with it the same thing that is done in the common schools". He claimed no special privilege, but contended for the "constitutional rights" of his people. He was opposed, not only by the Public School Society, but also by representatives of the Methodist, Episcopal, and Presbyterian Churches. The claims of the Catholics went before the legislature; but there also sectarian hatred was injected into the discussion and bigotry gained the day. The controversy, however, had one good result. It showed the imminent danger to faith and morals existing in the public school system as influenced by the so-called non-sectarians of that day, and as a consequence Catholics set to work to build up, at a tremendous cost, a system of parochial schools unsupported by the State.

In theory it is still maintained that injustice is being done to Catholics. If the "secular branches" are taught in the parochial schools to the satisfaction of the State authorities, the schools should be compensated for doing that portion of the task which the State has assumed. On the other hand, there are many Catholics who are convinced that if State aid were accepted it could be done only at the cost of independence, that State aid would be the price of admitting State supervision to the extent of partial de-Catholicization. There have, nevertheless, been individual instances in which a compromise has been reached, e.g. Savannah, Georgia; St. Augustine, Florida; Poughkeepsie, New York; and Faribault and Stillwater, Minnesota. The last-mentioned instance gave rise to the celebrated School Controversy of 1891-92. The Faribault plan consisted in setting aside a certain time for religious instruction, to be given gratis by the Catholic teachers, and a time for secular instruction, to be given also by Catholic teachers. The secular instruction was to be paid for by the State, and in respect to that portion of its work the school was to be under State supervision; it was, in fact, to be recognized as a "public school". The question was finally carried to the Congregation of the Propaganda, which rendered its decision on 21 April, 1892, to the effect that "considering the peculiar circumstances and character of the arrangement, and the agreement by which the plan was inaugurated, it may be tolerated". In the discussion of the Faribault plan certain fundamental questions were touched, as for instance in Dr. Bouquillon's "Education, to whom does it belong?" (Baltimore, 1891), "A Rejoinder to the Civiltà Cattolica" (Baltimore, 1892)," A Rejoinder to Critics" (Baltimore, 1892), Hollaind, S.J., "The Parents First" (New York, 1891), Conway, S.J., "The State Last" (New York, 1892), Brandi, S.J., in "Civiltà Cattolica", 2 Jan., 1892, tr. as a pamphlet (New York, 1892). It should be added that, owing to some local difficulty the agreement at Faribault and Stillwater was later discontinued, but a similar agreement is in force today in not a few places in Minnesota.

The attitude of the hierarchy of the United States towards the problem of elementary education has been consistent from the beginning. At first Bishop Carroll, in the days immediately following the Revolution, entertained the hope that Catholics might unite with their non-Catholic fellow-citizens in building up a system of education that would be mutually satisfactory from the religious point of view. Soon, however, he realized that that hope was futile. After the First Catholic Synod he addressed (1792) a pastoral letter to the Catholics of the country, in which he emphasized the necessity of a "pious and Catholic education of the young to insure their growing up in the faith", and expressed the hope that the graduates of the newly-founded College of Georgetown would, on returning to their homes, be able "to instruct and guide others in local schools". Thus the plan of organizing separate Catholic schools was inaugurated. The First Plenary Council of Baltimore (1829) declares: "We judge it absolutely necessary that schools should be established, in which the young may be taught the principles of faith and morality, while being instructed in letters" ("Decreta", n. 33). The Second Council (1832) renewed this enactment and entered into the details of organization (see "Decreta", n. 38). The Third Plenary Council of Baltimore (1884) devoted very careful consideration to the subject of elementary schools and decreed in explicit terms the obligation of establishing a parochial school in every parish within two years of the promulgation of the decree, except where the bishop, on account of serious difficulties in the way (ob graviores difficultates) judges that a delay may be granted ("Acta et Decreta", 199, no. 1).

Parochial schools and public schools

The establishment and maintenance of parochial schools does not imply the condemnation of public schools, or opposition of any kind to the purpose for which these are established. At a meeting of the National Educational Association at Nashville, Tennessee in July, 1889, both Cardinal Gibbons, Archbishop of Baltimore, and Archbishop Keane, then rector of the Catholic University of America, stated the case in favour of denominational schools, and made it clear that, so far as citizenship and patriotism are concerned, the Catholic schools are aiming successfully at the same ideals as the public schools. Since that time the calumny has been repeated that parochial schools lead to sectionalism, and are opposed to national patriotism. Catholics can only answer that this is not true, and point to facts to justify their reply. Our schools teach everything that is taught in the public schools, and, in addition, teach religion and religious morality. The exclusion of religion from the public schools is, we think, historically, the result of sectarian division and sectarian prejudice. In recent times theorists have sought to justify the omission on pedagogical grounds, and have suggested various substitutes for religion as a basis of morality. We criticize the theories, and point to the educational results in justification of our contention. If the exclusion of religion and the substitution for it of inadequate and futile moral education lead to disastrous results, the Catholics who call attention to those conditions, far from opposing the public school system, are really doing it a service. Meantime they feel that the tendency in the educational policy of the public school system is more and more towards secularization. In the matter of morality they feel that experiments more and more dangerous are being tried in the public schools, and if they protest, they are doing what, after all, they have a right, as taxpayers, to do. Meantime also they are developing their own system of education without giving up the contention that, in justice, they have a right to compensation for the secular education and the education in citizenship which they give in their schools.

Conflicts between the educational authority of the State and the Catholic clergy have arisen in a few instances. The clergy have always recognized the right of officials of the Department of Health, etc., to interfere in the matters in which they have competence. Where they have retained full autonomy, and have not yielded for the sake of affiliation or some other form of recognition, they have naturally avoided all friction with State educational authority. By way of exception, we have the celebrated Ohio Compulsory Education case, in which Father Patrick F. Quigley, of Toledo, Ohio, resisted unsuccessfully the enactment of the State of Ohio (1890) compelling all principals and teachers in all schools to make quarterly reports to State officers. The still more famous Wisconsin Bible Case involved the question of the right of the District Board of Edgerton, Wisconsin, to have the King James Version of the Bible read in the public schools which were attended by Catholic pupils. The Supreme Court of Wisconsin decided in favour of the Catholics.

Principles embodied in the parochial schools

The sacrifice which Catholics are making in maintaining their system of primary schools is justified, in their estimation, by the following principles:

Besides, they strive, with great personal sacrifice on the part of people, teachers, and pupils, to keep up with the public school system in teaching the secular branches. They are as a rule the equals, and often the superiors, of the public schools in the quality of the secular instruction which they give. They have the advantage of discipline, uniformity of ideals, harmony of methods, and, above all, of disinterested devotedness on the part of their teachers. Finally, the fact should not be overlooked that the parochial schools save many millions of dollars annually to the non-Catholic public, who, if the Catholic children were not provided for in parochial schools, would be obliged to increase very considerably the annual cost of education.

Organization and statistics

The parochial school system is diocesan in its organization. The supreme educational authority is the bishop, who governs and administers the schools of his diocese through the assistance of a school board and, very often, a diocesan (clerical) inspector of schools. The immediate authority is vested in the pastor, whose task it is to provide building, salaries, etc. The teachers are almost universally religious. The principal of the school is appointed usually by the religious community to which he or she belongs. The great majority of the schools are mixed, that is, schools for boys and girls. The only exceptions, apparently, are those in which the boys are taught by brothers and the girls by sisters. There is no recognized national central authority in Catholic educational matters. However, the parochial school section of the Catholic Educational Association has already done much towards unifying and systematizing our parochial schools. The training of teachers is, as a rule, provided for by the different religious communities engaged in the work of teaching. There are no diocesan institutions for the training of the teachers for the whole diocese. During the summer of 1911 a regular session of the Catholic University of America was held for the benefit of the teaching sisterhoods. Of the three hundred who attended, a large percentage took up professional pedagogical subjects. Similar institutes were held at Chicago, Milwaukee, and elsewhere. In the autumn of the same year the Sisters' College was formally opened at Brookland, D. C., under the auspices of the Catholic University of America, and of the twenty-nine students who attended the first session all took professional courses in education. The number of parochial schools in the United States in 1911 was, according to the "Catholic Directory", 4972, and the number of pupils 1,270,131. These figures do not include orphan asylums, which numbered 285 and took care of 51,938 orphans. Neither do they include the non-parochial academies, convent boarding schools, and day schools, nor the colleges for boys, many of which have a number of primary pupils in attendance.

Australia

In Australia as in the other parts of the British Empire, the struggle in defence of Catholic education has been a hard, uphill fight. Even in the present age the Catholics of Australia, who have by the most generous and devoted sacrifices created a fine system of education, both primary and secondary, have not the right, which the Catholics of England, Ireland, and Scotland enjoy, to have any share whatever in the large sums of public money expended on the schools, whilst they are compelled to contribute this money in the form of taxes and rates.

History

From 1788, when Governor Philip first established a colonial settlement at Port Jackson, until 1826, the only schools available for Catholic children in the colony were the officially controlled Anglican schools, on which large grants of money and land were lavished. The devoted Catholic chaplain Father Therry started a small school in 1826, for which he managed to obtain a little Government aid. By 1836 there were thirteen Catholic schools. Through the influence of Governor Bourke, a liberal Irish Protestant, a system of State aid recognizing the various denominations was developed, a Denominational Board for distributing the funds was set up, and a modest allowance was secured by Catholics. But in 1848 a National Secular System was introduced with a Central Board of Education somewhat similar to that existing in Ireland, yet running concomitantly with the existing Denominational Board. Hostility between the two was inevitable, and there were many inconveniences. By the Public School Act of 1866 a Central Council of Education was established and sundry changes were introduced, some being to the detriment of the denominational schools; for the defence of Catholic rights a Catholic Association was formed. But the secular movement supported by anti-Catholic prejudice grew in strength and, by the Public Instruction Act of 1880, a centralized secular system, withdrawing all State aid from the denominational schools, was completely established in New South Wales; this had been done already in some of the other States, and as time went on was done also in the remaining. The effect of the measure was the speedy extinction of the great majority of the other denominational schools, whilst the Catholics, thrown again entirely on their own resources, started to build and support their schools (both primary and secondary), the numbers of which they have since then largely increased. The secular system has thus been in force in the State schools for thirty years, but the situation's not acquiesced in by the Catholics; they continue to demand the right as free citizens to have the money which they pay in taxes for the support of education expended on the only education which they can conscientiously accept.

Present status of Catholic education

The Catholic primary schools are under the authority of the bishop of the diocese. There are no school boards; inspectors appointed by diocesan authority examine and report on the schools. Competitive yearly interprimary school examinations for Catholic secondary school scholarships give an extra stimulus to individual work. In some states Government inspectors are invited to visit the schools, but only in three states does the law enforce Government inspection. These schools are taxed like ordinary institutions; where they come into competition with the State schools, e.g. for civil service appointments, they win more than their share of successes. The Catholic secondary schools and high schools for boys and girls are numerous, and are in charge of the religious congregations. The Jesuit Fathers have four colleges, and the Vincentian and Marist Fathers (N. Z.) one each. The remainder are divided among the Christian, Marist, Patrician, and De La Salle Brothers. Secondary education is largely guided by the university examinations, and here again the Catholic schools amply prove their efficiency. Victoria (Tasmania lately passed a similar law) by Act of Parliament (1906) exacts the registration of all private schools both primary and secondary, and of all teachers. An Educational Council, on which Catholics are represented, has charge of the register, determines the conditions of registration, and adjudicates on individual claims. Vested interests are respected, but evidence of competency is to be required of all future teachers. Catholics are endeavouring to meet the new conditions by the establishment of training colleges, especially for women. In New South Wales, where similar legislation is probable, Cardinal Moran (d. 6 Aug., 1911) in 1911 established a Catholic Council of Education to safeguard Catholic interests.

In Australasia, including New Guinea, there are: Catholic primary schools, 1004; superior day schools, 196; boarding schools for girls, 194; colleges for boys, 27; ecclesiastical seminaries, 5; and one college for foreign missions. The estimated total Catholic population is 982,578; scholars, 123,905. The great majority of the Catholic teachers are from among the 6000 nuns and 549 brothers who devote their lives to the service of the Church in the country. Lay teachers are chiefly employed in the country districts. The per capita cost of education in the Catholic primary schools averages between £3 and £4; in the State schools, between £5 and £6. The amount saved to the State by the self-sacrifice of the Catholic body totals annually about three-quarters of a million pounds. The Catholic schools are maintained by the voluntary contributions of the faithful--church collections, concerts, bazaars etc.--and the gratuitous labours of the religious. The classes in the Catholic primary schools are graded in a system somewhat similar to that in the Government schools. In some of the states, notably in New South Wales, the Catholic school authorities have been able to issue special Catholic school readers and periodical school papers. As an offset to the Government scholarships, which unlike those in England are tenable only at the Government high schools, the Catholics have founded scholarships in Catholic secondary schools for their primary school children. Technical instruction is usually included in the curriculum of the larger schools, but is more systematically organized in Catholic institutions for orphans and industrial work.

Canada

Canada is a self-governing dominion of the British Empire consisting of nine provinces and some territories not yet erected in provinces. Its population is partly French in origin and language, partly British. It will be necessary, in order to be accurate, to speak of each province separately.

Ontario

The beginnings of Catholic education in Ontario may be said to date back to the year 1615, in which the Recollect Joseph Le Caron, making a journey of exploration in the countries of the Algonquin and Huron tribes, decided on the foundation of missions in their midst. Writing to the Court of France, he said: "We must first make men of these Indians, then Christians." During the years 1622-26, his first efforts were assisted by the arrival of Fathers Guillaume Poulin, Nicholas Viel, and de La Roche d'Aillon, of his order, and the Jesuit Fathers Brébeuf and de La Noue. Their work was facilitated by the aid of interpreters who were good Christians and valiant auxiliaries. By 1638 the Jesuit Fathers, now ten in number, had established two residences on the banks of Georgian Bay. These outposts speedily became centres of Christian and Catholic civilization. Until 1650 the missionaries, with their devoted lay brothers and coadjutors from France, were the only Catholic teachers of Ontario. Their first lessons of catechism, of book-knowledge, and of agriculture, given amidst the greatest privations, and often at the peril of their lives, owed much more to their unlimited zeal than to any generosity on the part of their pupils. In 1649 the Huron and Algonquin neophytes were exterminated by the ferocious Iroquois, who burnt or destroyed seven flourishing missions, which had been directed by no fewer than sixty missionaries and helpers, many of whom perished with their flocks. The surviving heroes of the Gospel found a new field of action among the Outaouais, who inhabited the present County of Bruce, the islands of Georgian Bay, and Great Manitoulin Island. The work that had been done for the Hurons and Algonquins of Eastern Ontario was now renewed on behalf of the Western tribes. Nothing that human zeal could accomplish was spared to make of them civilized people and fervent Catholics. When Antoine* de La Mothe Cadillac founded the important post of Detroit (1701), he was accompanied by missionaries, among whom was the Rev. Father Lhalle, who became rector of the pioneers of Essex. The Iroquet tribe, belonging to the large family of the Algonquins, settled in the farthest eastern end of the province in the present Counties of Stormont, Glengarry, and Prescott, received at an early date the joyful tidings of Catholic doctrine and the benefit of Catholic education.

After the War of American Independence, a great number of settlers, faithful to the British flag, took refuge in the Province of Ontario. The first immigrants established themselves at Indian Point, in the vicinity of Kingston, in 1784. Later on, other loyalists took up homesteads at Toronto and Niagara. The few French families who had followed de La Mothe Cadillac to Detroit survived to constitute the colony of Essex, and their descendants rapidly invaded both the Counties of Essex and Kent, where the French population now almost forms a majority. In 1786 and 1802 Scotch emigrants settled in large numbers in the Counties of Glengarry and Prescott. From 1816 to 1825 British officers and furloughed soldiers, mostly Irish, colonized the districts of Carleton, Lanark, and Peterborough. The construction of the Rideau Canal caused a large number of workmen to take up their residence in Ontario. An entire colony of Scotch Catholics, expelled from the United States after the War of Independence on account of their attachment to the British Crown, settled in Canada near Niagara, in the Counties of Lincoln and Welland. A vigorous stream of immigration from Germany in 1835 overflowed the western end of the province, in the present Counties of Bruce, Huron, and Perth. Meanwhile French Canadians poured into the Counties of Russell, Prescott, and Glengarry. Raftsmen and French Canadians of various occupations ascended the Ottawa River, exploring the regions now known as New Ontario, Algoma, Nipissing, and Thunder Bay. They are now in a majority in these three counties, and have churches, priests, and schools of their own.

This Catholic immigration, so abundant and sudden, incited the ardent zeal of Mgr Plessis, Bishop of Quebec, to send missionaries to Upper Canada. Priests from the seminary of Quebec, others from the foreign missionary organization of Paris, and a small number of priests who had immigrated with their Scotch or Irish countrymen ministered to the spiritual wants of these courageous colonists. They joyfully accepted their share of the great poverty of these pioneers. They thought more of preserving the Faith, of administering the sacraments, and of reforming abuses than of founding schools. Not that they considered schools as of little importance, but because, from lack of resources and teachers, the establishment of schools was an impossibility. From 1830, however, Toronto had its Catholic school; then Kingston, in 1837 and Picton, in 1840, were likewise provided for. The hierarchy of the Catholic Church, ever anxious to foster the education of the people confided to its care, was soon established in the province. This was the signal for the opening of educational establishments at divers points. Ottawa had its Catholic schools in 1844; Brantford in 1850; Goderich and Peterborough in 1852; Hamilton, Oshawa, and Barrie in 1855; Perth and Alexandria in 1856; Orillia in 1857; Berlin, Dundas, and St. Thomas in 1858; Belleville in 1860, and so on. The venerable Bishops A. McDonell, R. Gaulin, Power, Guiges, O.M.I., de Charbonel, Pinsonnault, Jamot, Farrell, and Phelan; Fathers J. Ryan, Proulx, Grand, Maloney, Carayon, Grattan, Bissey, Jeffrey, Bilroy, Lawler, Faure, the Jesuit Fathers du Ranquet, Hanipaux, Chôné, Frémiol, the Oblate Fathers Tilmon, Dandurand, Tabaret, Soulerin, Manroit, and the Basilian Fathers--these were the pioneers and defenders of Catholic education in Ontario. They found very able helpers in the various religious communities of women, and in the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools. Many sincerely Christian persons among the laity also devoted themselves to the cause of Catholic education in the province. Among the earliest and most remarkable may be mentioned, at Toronto, J. Harvey and J. Seyers; at Ottawa, Dr. Riel, Friolle, and Goode; at Dundas, Miss Sweeney; at Brantford, J. d'Astroph; at Oakland, Capt. Fitzgerald.

The Catholic schools have become numerous and powerful. Their organization, from the points of view of studies, discipline, and regular attendance of pupils, is better than that of all other institutions of the same class in the province. Many years have already elapsed since in the cities, villages, and other parts of the country, long opened up to colonization, the old square-timber school-houses were replaced by splendid buildings of brick or stone. The architecture of these schools is simple and beautiful; the systems of ventilation, lighting, and heating are excellent; the installation of suitable school furniture and accessories is almost complete. This progress is very evident, even in centres of colonization. The school trustees make it a point of honour to put up school buildings which are beautiful and spacious, and which leave nothing to be desired in ventilation, lighting, and heating. The Catholic schools of Ontario are called separate schools. They do separate, in fact, for school purposes, the Catholic minority from the Protestant majority. They make it possible for Catholics to withdraw their children from the public or common schools, which are by law Protestant. Nevertheless, there are some public schools which are really Catholic; these exist in localities exclusively or almost exclusively Catholic. Such schools are found especially in the Counties of Russell, Prescott, Algoma, Nipissing, Kent, and Essex. Separate schools were granted in 1841, when the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada were united. Wishing to secure for their co-religionists in Lower Canada exemption from the obligation of sending their children to the Catholic schools (common schools in that province), and of paying taxes for the support of said schools, the Protestants of Ontario and Quebec proposed to establish a system of dissident or separate schools. What they claimed for the Protestants of Lower Canada they had to bind themselves in strict justice to grant to the Catholics of Upper Canada.

The principle of separate schools, Catholic in Ontario and Protestant in Quebec, received the royal sanction on 18 September, 1841. This fundamental law had been discussed by a committee of the Legislative Assembly in which Lower Canada was represented by fifteen members and Upper Canada by eight. This law authorized dissidents from the common schools, on giving notice to the clerk of the district council, to pay their school taxes for the support of separate schools, and to receive a share of the government grants for education in proportion to their number. The same law authorized the election by the people of trustees for the administration of separate schools. The governor was authorized to nominate in each city a board of examiners composed of an equal number of Catholics and Protestants. The Catholics of Ontario obtained the privilege of establishing a separate board for the examination of candidates wishing to teach in their schools; a clause in this fundamental law exempted the Brothers of the Christian Schools from submitting to examination by this board. From 1841 to 1863, at almost every session of the Legislature, the Ontario Protestants proposed amendments to the act establishing separate schools. These amendments tended, for the most part, to render the existence of separate schools in Ontario so precarious that they would die out of themselves. The desired privileges for the Protestants of Lower Canada had been obtained; it was well known that these privileges would always be respected by the Catholic majority of Quebec; now, they thought, it would be safe to deliver the attacks of unenlightened fanaticism against the separate schools of Upper Canada. Cost what it might, the cry was raised for a single school system for the whole of Upper Canada--a common, public, or national school system. While constantly professing motives of the purest justice and common interest, the Protestant Province of Upper Canada has continually sullied its reputation for fairness by setting an example of fanaticism, narrow-mindedness, and intolerance towards Catholic schools, whilst Lower Canada, a Catholic province, has been a model of perfect justice and toleration.

On 27 February, 1863, a Catholic deputy, R. W. Scott, presented for the fourth time a new law to govern the separate schools. This law was adopted, thanks to the generous aid given by the French Canadian deputies, mostly from Lower Canada. The Upper Canadian majority voted against the bill, but all the members from Quebec and twenty-one members from Upper Canada, among them several Protestants, were in its favour and carried the measure.

1f Ontario now possesses a system of Catholic separate schools, it is largely due to the French Canadians of Lower Canada, whose wishes in the matter were enforced by their representatives, Catholic and Protestant. This law, enacted in 1863, was maintained at the time of the confederation of the provinces in 1867; it still governs today the Catholic separate schools of Ontario. Yet it is far from giving to the Catholics of that province liberties equal to those enjoyed by the Protestant minority of Quebec. It recognizes the Catholic separate schools for primary education only. Secondary or superior education in Ontario is Protestant. The Catholics have their academies, convents, colleges, and universities, but these are independent schools, supported by the voluntary contributions of Catholics who have also to contribute, on the same footing as Protestants, to the support of the government high schools, collegiate institutes, and universities. It refuses to separate schools the right to a share of the taxes paid by public-utility companies, such as railway, tramway and telephone companies, banks, etc. It withholds from the trustees of separate schools the right of expropriation in order to secure more fitting localities for their schools. It refuses to the Protestant father of a Catholic family the right to pay his taxes towards the support of Catholic schools. It allows Catholics the option of paying their taxes to support the public schools. As the rate of taxation for separate schools is generally higher than that for public schools, owing to the large number of children in families of the Catholic minority, and to the abstention of large business concerns from contributing the least support to the separate schools, it follows that many Catholics, more or less sincere, avoid the higher rate and pay their taxes towards the support of the public, or Protestant, schools. The separate schools are administered, as by a court of final jurisdiction, by the Education Department at Toronto, in which Catholics are not represented.

The law governing the separate schools nevertheless gives to Catholics the following rights:

The board of trustees has likewise the right to impose the teaching in French or German of reading, spelling and literature, as provided for by the regulations of the Education Department, page 9, article 15, year 1907. The French Canadians, availing themselves of this right, have the French language taught in 250 schools, frequented almost entirely by their children. The Government has named three French Canadian inspectors for these schools, called bilingual. The teachers of these schools are trained in two public bilingual training-schools, one at Sturgeon Falls and the other at Ottawa, founded and supported by the Government, and directed by Catholic principals. The certificates issued by these schools give the right to teach in the bilingual schools for five years only. The Government makes a yearly grant to both Catholic and public schools, the amount being calculated upon the value of the schoolhouse, the excellence of its furnishings, the certificates and salaries of the teachers, and the attendance of the children. The statistics for 1909, taken from the Report of the Minister of Education, are as follows:

Number of Catholic separate schools 467
Number of pupils in attendance 55,034
Average daily attendance 34, 553
Percentage of attendance 62.78
Percentage of attendance in the public schools 59.81
Number of teachers 1,089
Amount spent for schoolhouses $161,317
Amount spent for teachers' salaries $404,890
Average cost per pupil $14.90
Total expenditures for 1909 for elementary public and separate schools $8,141,423

The Catholic colleges for boys are: in the Diocese of Toronto, that of the Basilian Fathers, founded in 1852, 15 professors, 280 students; in the Diocese of London, Basilian Fathers, founded 1857, 37 professors, 149 students; Diocese of Hamilton, Fathers of the Resurrection, founded 1857, 11 professors, 100 students; Diocese of Kingston, secular clergy, founded 1837, 4 professors, 85 students. The Brothers of the Christian Schools conduct an academy with 14 teachers and 297 pupils. The Ursuline Sisters, 1 college for girls, 202 pupils; Sisters of Mary, 1 academy for girls; Sisters of St. Joseph, 1, 140 pupils; Sisters of Loretto, 4, 78 teachers, 490 pupils; Grey Nuns of the Cross, 2, 35 teachers, 555 pupils; Christian Brothers, 1, 14 teachers, 297 pupils. Other convent schools are those of the Sisters of St. Joseph (seven schools, 74 teachers, 975 pupils); Sisters of Loretto (two schools, 30 teachers, 280 pupils); Grey Nuns of the Cross (one school, 6 teachers, 239 pupils); Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary (one school, founded in 1864); Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame (one school, 29 teachers, 380 pupils). There are three industrial schools under the care of religious institutes: the Brothers of the Christian Schools (8 teachers, 95 pupils); Daughters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (10 teachers, 110 pupils); Sisters of St. Joseph (10 teachers, 65 pupils). The nine orphanages under the care of religious are: 2 under the Grey Nuns of the Cross, with 385 orphans; 5 under the Sisters of St. Joseph, with 582 orphans; 1 under the School Sisters of Notre Dame, with 54 orphans; 1 under the Sisters of Providence, with 85 orphans.

The appended table of religious institutes engaged in teaching in Ontario at the present time (1911) is necessarily incomplete, reliable figures being unobtainable in many cases. In such cases the figures have been omitted altogether, as approximate figures are liable to be misleading.

RELIGIOUS INSTITUTES ENGAGED IN TEACHING IN ONTARIO (1911)
  Mother-House Diocese Foun-
dation
Schools Teach-
ers
Pupils
Brothers of the Christian Schools
Brothers of the Christian Schools
Brothers of the Sacred Heart
Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame
Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame
Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame
Sisters of the Assumption
Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary
Sisters of the Presentation
Grey Nuns of the Cross
Grey Nuns of the Cross
Grey Nuns of the Cross
Daughters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Sisters of the Holy Cross and Seven Dolours
Sisters of the Holy Cross and Seven Dolours
Sisters of Loretto
Sisters of Loretto
Sisters of Loretto
Sisters of St. Joseph
Sisters of St. Joseph
Sisters of St. Joseph
Sisters of St. Joseph
Sisters of St. Joseph
Sisters of St. Joseph
School Sisters of Notre Dame
School Sisters of Notre Dame
Sisters of La Sagesse
Sisters of La Sagesse
Sisters of St. Mary
Ursuline Sisters
Sisters of Providence
Sisters of the Sacred Heart
Paris
Paris
Le Puy
Montreal
Montreal
Montreal
Nicolet
Montreal
St. Hyacinthe
Ottawa
Ottawa
Ottawa
Buffalo
St. Laurent, P.Q.

Toronto
Toronto
Toronto
Toronto
Toronto
Hamilton
London
Peterboro
Peterboro
Milwaukee
Milwaukee
St. Laurent-sur-Sèvre
St. Laurent-sur-Sèvre
Lockport, N.Y.
Chatham
Kingston
Ottawa
Ottawa
Toronto
Ottawa
Kingston
Alexandria
Ottawa
Temiskaming
London
St. Boniface
Ottawa
Pembroke
Sault Ste. Marie
Sault Ste. Marie
Alexandria
Pembroke
Toronto
Hamilton
London
Toronto (City)
Toronto
Hamilton
London
Peterboro
Sault Ste. Marie
Hamilton
Alexandria
Sault Ste. Marie
Ottawa
Ottawa
London
Kingston
Ottawa
1864
1851
1911
1841
1883
1868
1910
1864
1903
1845
1863
1896
1862
1856
1886
1857


1851



1874

1871

1904
1891
1887
1860
1860
1910
3
6
1
4
3

2
4
1
27
2
2
5
1
1
6
3

11
10
12
12
3
3
8
3
2
3
2
6
8
1
31
28
4
15
21

8
24
6
124
12
12

15
9
36




50
44
21
32
65
16
21
10

38
44
 
950
1001
139
511
1266

280
987
150
6410
522
550

490
260
1649
450

3374
1380
2391
2035
725
1160
1506
675
600
505

1686
1455
10

Quebec

French rule (1635-1763)

Primary schools

With the introduction of Christianity, schools sprang up in the French colony even among the remotest tribes. The Recollects were the first schoolmasters of Canada. In 1616, one of them, Brother Pacifique Duplessis, opened, at Three Rivers, the first school of New France. Shortly afterwards the Jesuit Fathers followed them, teaching the children reading, writing, arithmetic, and catechism. In 1634, a year after the arrival of the pioneer families in Canada, an elementary school was founded in Quebec. As colonists increased, primary schools sprang up. The boys' schools were at St. Foy, the Island of Orléans, Point Levis, Château-Richer, Quebec, Montreal, Three Rivers. Proofs exist that there were in the city and district of Quebec 15 primary schools for boys; in the city and district of Montreal, 10; in the city and district of Three Rivers, 7. Among the organizers were Mgr Laval and his seminary. Mgr de St-Vallier, his successor, encouraged elementary, secondary, and technical schools by every means in his power. In the district of Montreal the Sulpician Fathers founded several schools. M. Souart, superior of Montreal from 1661 to 1668, took pride in styling himself the first schoolmaster of New France; all his brethren shared his zeal. In 1715 Brother Charon opened a school for boys at Pointe-aux Trembles, near Montreal, and took upon himself the charge of recruiting teachers for the country districts. In investigating the history of the schools in pioneer days we invariably find as their founder or benefactor a bishop, a priest, a religious congregation, or a layman, himself a school-teacher or assisted by a teacher who travelled from one district to another.

The education of the girls was as carefully attended to as that of the boys. The Ursulines built schools at Quebec and Three Rivers. The religious of the Hôpital Général de Québec erected a boarding school, while the Sisters of the Congregation de Notre Dame, founded by the Venerable Marguerite Bourgeoys, multiplied convents at Montreal, Quebec, Three Rivers, and in the country districts, where the children of the colonists came to be trained in all things essential to the development of a strong Christian character. Charlevoix says: "If to this day, there prevail in Canada so great a gentleness in the manners of all classes of society and so much charm in the intercourse of life, it is owing in great measure to the zeal of Marguerite Bourgeoys". Twelve houses were opened by the Congregation of Notre Dame during the period of French rule.

Special schools

Specializing in teaching was not unknown at this epoch when existence itself was a struggle. There were schools of mathematics and hydrography at Montreal at the Jesuits and the Charon Brothers', art and trade schools at the seminary at Quebec, art and trade schools at St. Joachim, art and trade schools at the Charon Brothers.

Secondary schools

While defending the colony from the incursions of the Indians and fighting to retain their prior right of possession, the French not only established primary and special schools but founded and endowed secondary schools. The classical college of the Jesuits was established at a time when the population of the entire country was but a few hundred souls, and the Petit Séminaire of Quebec opened its doors on October, 1688.

British rule (1763-1910)

In 1763 60,000 French Catholic colonists passed by right of conquest under British Protestant rule. The progress of the Catholic schools was greatly impeded. The Church, through her teaching communities and secular clergy, organized schools in the most important villages; but, unfortunately, a great number of parishes were without pastors. In 1801 the Legislature passed a law entitled "An Act to establish Free Schools", which provided for the establishment of a permanent corporation known as the Royal Institute. Thus the monopoly was given to the Church of England to establish and support English Protestant schools for a population almost entirely made up of French Catholics, Scattered over the country districts, in the midst of a mistrustful people, the schools of the Royal Institute were patronized by the English colonists only. Twenty-four years after its foundation the Royal Institute had only 37 schools with 1048 pupils. On the other hand, parochial schools increased. At Montreal, the Sulpicians and the Ladies of the Congregation of Notre Dame opened free schools. A Catholic educational society was founded at Quebec to teach poor children and train teachers for country districts. Many other societies were formed in different parts of Canada for a similar purpose. The parishes were few that could not boast of fairly good schools. Private or independent schools increased more rapidly than the parish schools. In 1824 the Legislature passed the Parochial School Act authorizing the pastors and church-wardens to appropriate a fourth part of the revenue of the parochial corporation for the support of the schools under their exclusive control. In 1829 there were no less than 14,700 children in these schools which were supported at the cost of much sacrifice by a poor and scattered population. Many other attempts were made to organize Catholic schools until, finally, in 1841, a law was passed wherein were contained the principal provisions of the Educational Act as it exists in the Province of Quebec today. This law, considerably augmented by that of 1846, gave a great impetus to public instruction. In 1849 there were 1817 schools and 68,904 pupils. Owing to the influence of Dr. Meilleur, Superintendent of Catholic Schools of Quebec, education made rapid progress. Chaveau, his successor, continued to work with the same zeal. He established three primary denominational normal schools in Lower Canada, two for Catholics, who were in a great majority, the third for Protestants. In Ontario, there was but one normal school, for the Protestant majority, who neglected to do justice to the Catholic minority, while Quebec gave to Protestants, who were in the minority, a separate normal school.

The school organization of the Province of Quebec is now under the control of the Department of Public Instruction. The president, who is elected for life, is non-partisan in politics and bears the title of Superintendent of Education. He is assisted by a French and an English secretary, who are charged with the administration of the affairs of their respective nationalities and co-religionists. The Council of Public Instruction is composed of highly esteemed members, chosen from the two religious denominations; they frame laws and rules relating to public instruction which are afterwards submitted to the sanction of the government. The Council of Public Instruction is divided into Catholic and Protestant sections. The Catholic committee includes as ex-officio members the archbishops, bishops or administrators of dioceses and Apostolic vicariates of the Province of Quebec, and a number of Catholic laymen. The Protestant committee is composed of Protestant members equal in number to the laymen of the Catholic committee. Apart from these two committees, there are other members who do not form part of the Council of Public Instruction, but who have, in their respective committees, the same power as the members of the committees. These two committees, which sit independently, unite, under the presidency of the superintendent of education, when there are matters to discuss that interest both religious denominations. All questions relating exclusively to Catholics or to Protestants are decided by their respective religious committees.

The Province of Quebec is divided into school municipalities for the support of one or more schools. These municipalities are subdivided into school districts, and are entrusted to the commissioners or trustees elected by the taxpayers. In large cities, like Quebec and Montreal, the commissioners are named by the Government on the suggestion of the superintendent of education, the bishop of the diocese, and the city itself. The commissioners are the local directors and real supervisors of the school; they have charge of the administration; they name the teachers; dispose of school property, purchase ground and build schoolhouses, impose and collect the school taxes and fees. Taxpayers who do not profess the same religious belief as the majority of the inhabitants in the municipality where they reside, have a right to a school commission of their own, composed of three members chosen from among their co-religionists. These members, called school trustees, represent the dissenting minority; they have the same privileges as the commissioners.

The administration of public schools is controlled by Catholic school inspectors for Catholic schools, and Protestant for non-Catholic schools. These functionaries are subject to the superintendent of education. There are also two general inspectors charged respectively with Catholic and Protestant normal schools. The first inspectors were named, in 1852. At present (1911) thirty-nine Catholic inspectors, under the supervision of a general inspector, visit the 6000 Catholic schools of the province. The school revenues are obtained from government grants and local taxation, The operation of this law exhibits striking proof of the good faith and fairness of the Catholics, who constitute the great majority: they organize their schools, but never take advantage of their numbers to force Protestants to send their children to Catholic schools. All persons wishing to teach in public schools under the administration of school commissioners and trustees must obtain diplomas from a normal school or from the Central Board of Examiners. Nevertheless, ministers of religion and members of religious communities of both sexes are exempt from these examinations. Members of teaching orders, after completing their course of studies, make a novitiate of two, three, or four years before receiving their "obedience". This period of normal training exempts them from the examinations imposed on lay teachers by the Central Board of Examiners. Primary teaching comprises three degrees: the elementary course (4 years), the intermediate course (2 years), and the superior course (2 years). Schools of the first degree are called primary elementary; those of the second, model, or primary intermediate; those of the third, academic, or primary superior. In the following table of statistics of elementary education in the Province of Quebec for the year 1909-10, those schools which are subject to the provincial or the municipal Government are classed as "State"; the others, as "Independent".

COURSESCHOOLS TEACHERS PUPILS
StateIndependent LayReligious
Elementary
Primary Intermediate
Primary Superior
4825
462
74
57
149
128
5054
326
157
631
2178
1440
187,120
95,259
47,259
Totals5361 3345537 4249 329,638

The teaching congregations direct a large number of schools, independent or under the control of different school commissions. The Christian Brothers have 63 houses in Canada, 51 in the Province of Quebec, 750 brothers and about 23,000 pupils. The following are the other teaching congregations of men: Clerks of St. Viateur, Brothers of Charity, Marist Brothers, Brothers of the Sacred Heart, Brothers of Christian Instruction, Brothers of St. Gabriel, Brothers of the Cross of Jesus (Diocese of Rimouski). Among the teaching congregations of women are: the Ursulines, with houses in the Dioceses of Quebec, Chicoutimi, Sherbrooke, and Rimouski. There are also Ursulines in the Diocese of Three Rivers; this house was founded by Mgr J.-C. de St-Vallier, second Bishop of Quebec. The Congregation of Notre Dame, founded at Montreal, 30 April, 1657, by Venerable Marguerite Bourgeoys (1620-1700), possesses 131 houses in Canada and the United States. It numbers 1510 professed sisters, 240 novices, 45 postulants. The Sisters teach 34,000 pupils in 21 dioceses. The Grey Nuns of Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec, and St. Hyacinthe teach a great number of children. The Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary have their mother-house at Montreal and houses both in Canada and in the United States; professed religious, 1257; novices, 110; postulants, 81; establishments, 74; parochial schools, 32; pupils, 24,208. Other congregations are: the Ladies of the Sacred Heart, the Sisters of Providence, Sisters of the Good Shepherd, Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Sisters of the Holy Cross and Seven Dolors (544 religious, 14,577 pupils in Canada and the United States), Sisters of St. Anne (63 establishments in the United States and Canada, 19,190 pupils), Sisters of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin, Nicolet (414 religious, 49 establishments), Sisters of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin, Religious of Jesus and Mary, Sisters of St. Joseph (St. Hyacinthe), Daughters of Wisdom, Sisters of St. Mary, Franciscans of Mary (Quebec), Sisters of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Sisters of the Holy Heart of Mary, Sisters of Our Lady of Good Counsel (Chicoutimi), Daughters of Jesus, Sisters of Charity of St. Louis, Religious of St. Francis of Assisi. Many of these congregations have mother-houses in the Province of Quebec; they direct a great number of establishments and send missionaries to the other provinces of the Dominion and to the United States.

There are thirteen art and trade schools in the principal centres of the Province of Quebec. During the school year 1909-10 there were 56 professors, 2632 boys. Besides the Agricultural Institute at Oka, affiliated to Laval University, and which is included in the scheme of superior education, there is an agricultural school in connexion with the College of St. Anne de La Pocatière, in the district of Quebec. There is a manual training and agricultural school for girls, under the direction of the Ursulines, at Roberval, Lake St. John district; another at St. Pascal, under the direction of the Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame. Normal schools were founded in 1856. There are now ten; two for boys and eight for girls. Three normal schools for girls are soon to be opened, so that each diocese of the Province of Quebec will have its own normal school. The pupils number 660; the professors, 110. There is one Catholic school for the blind (boys and girls), the Nazareth Institute, directed by the Grey Nuns; fifty-five pupils follow the regular course, under the direction of five professors; many excel in music and in other subjects. The Catholic Deaf and Dumb Institute, for boys, is directed by the Clerks of St. Viateur. The total number of pupils is 135, of whom 89 are instructed by the oral method, 46 by the written and manual alphabet. The work of teaching is carried on by 31 professors. The Catholic Deaf and Dumb Institute for girls is directed by the Sisters of Providence; 71 sisters teach 142 pupils. The two methods are in use, but the oral method is employed in instructing almost all the pupils. Former pupils, numbering 115, are engaged in manual labour in these asylums, receiving physical,intellectual, and moral care.

The night-schools, numbering 129, have taught 2546 Catholic pupils. There are a certain number of industrial schools. The Brothers of Charity direct a reform school (30 religious, 118 boarders). The Sisters of the Good Shepherd also have two houses, one at Montreal, the other at Park Laval. A great number of congregations are charged with the instruction of orphans; among the institutions may be mentioned the Orphan Asylum of Montfort, 305 children, Huberdeau, 220. The Fathers of the Society of Mary and the Daughters of Wisdom have charge of these orphans. All the principal cities have their kindergarten schools, which are not mentioned in the official reports. They are due to private initiative and are organized by religious communities. There are 21 classical colleges at Quebec, 18 of which are affiliated with Laval University. They were founded by bishops, priests, or zealous laymen who understood the needs of the different phases of the national and religious existence. Therein were fostered vocations to the priesthood and the liberal professions. These classical colleges have given Canada eminent men, both in Church and State, who, in the dark hours of its history, have preserved its faith and nationality; they have flourished and are still flourishing, thanks to the generosity of their founders and former pupils. They receive but $12,643 from the Provincial Legislature. The accompanying table of the Catholic colleges of the Province of Quebec exhibits the dates of their respective foundations as well as the number of pupils and professors in each.

INSTITUTION Date
of
Foundation
PUPILSPROFESSORS
ClassicalCommercial PriestsLaymen
Petit Séminaire de Québec
Montreal
Nicolet
St. Hyacinthe
Ste. Thérèse
Ste. Anne de La Pocatière
L'Assomption
Joliette
St. Laurent
Ste. Marie, Montreal
Rigaud
Lévis
Ste. Marie de Monnoir
Three Rivers
Rimouski
Chicoutimi
Sherbrooke
Valleyfield
Loyola
Nominigue
St. Jean
1665
1767
1803
1809
1825
1829
1832
1846
1847
1848
1850
1853
1853
1860
1867
1873
1875
1893
1897
1910
1911
629
465
316
353
250
128
227
209
195
375
108
115
39
144
101
70
125
96
190
60
40
....
....
....
....
50
247
55
113
180
....
182
490
98
161
106
159
274
161
68
....
76
47
32
23
32
38
39
30
37
42
25
32
40
18
32
27
41
34
31
11
....
11
4
1
2
2
2
....
1
....
....
3
1
2
1
1
....
1
2
2
7
....
....
Totals for twenty-one institutions
4235 2420622 32

English is the mother tongue of only a little more than 9 per cent of all the pupils attending these twenty-one institutions, the language of the remainder being French. The Classical course, including two years of philosophy, covers a period of eight years. It includes the study of Greek and Latin, to which educators, in certain countries, are coming back after having tried to abolish it. The study of the dead languages does not diminish the student's ardour for the two official languages of the country, French and English. Mount St. Louis, directed by the Christian Brothers, has a modern secondary course without Greek or Latin. They prepare young men principally for the polytechnical schools. The classical colleges affiliated with Laval University have the university course of studies and examinations. In 1910 a new school was opened for the hautes études commerciales, and about twenty-six pupils have followed the courses. In 1911 the Legislature organized two technical schools: one at Montreal, the other at Quebec.

In 1908 the Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame opened a college for young women. It is affiliated with Laval University, and embraces English, French, and commercial sections. The regular course, leading to the degrees of B.L., B.S., B.A., includes two, three, or four years' study according to the anterior preparation of the student. About seventy-five follow the regular course. A large number attend the public lectures. The final examinations of the year are submitted to university professors. The staff of sixteen religious is assisted by professors.

Nova Scotia

Catholicism was introduced in the Province of Nova Scotia by the French with the first settlement of the country; but the first mention which we have of Catholic school education dates only from thirty years later, when the Recollects opened at Port-Royal a seminary for the instruction of French and Indian children. This Catholic teaching was evidently continued, since we find a Capuchin Father writing, in 1652: "Emmanuel Le Borgne, governor of Acadia, has expelled from Port-Royal Madame de Brice d'Auxerre, superioress of the School for the Abenaquis". About 1680 the vicar-general, Petit, says in a letter to his superior, Mgr Vallier, that he has with him a man who teaches the boys of Port-Royal. Mgr Vallier himself first sends a Sister of the Congregation of Notre Dame to teach the Indian and French girls of Port-Royal, and a few years after, in 1686, he sends for Geoffrey, a